The Frame – The small rectangular area within which all the action takes place.
It is important to remember that all the audience sees is what we present in this small space.
Within the Frame are two major divided sections.
The Essential Area is that portion in the center that any Television will display. Because many TV sets can vary in the way they are adjusted, it is important to keep pertinent picture information in this area.
Headroom – This refers to the open space above a person’s head within the Frame. It is crucial to leave a sufficient amount of “breathing room” around a subject. Too much headroom is distracting and a waste of limited space.
A Shot is the way in which the subject(s) is (are) composed within the Frame. There are several common shots.
There are several terms used to describe camera movement.
When a crew is dispatched to photograph a scene or group of scenes (sometimes comprising an entire show) this is referred to as a Shoot. This may not be proper grammar to the layman, but is the term used in the Television business.
A cue is a signal to a crew member or the talent to begin. As an example, at the beginning of a show the director will shout the command, “cue talent”. This will prompt the Floor Manager to make a large pointing gesture at the person on stage to begin.
Of course, if the talent begins talking and the microphone is not active, the audience will hear nothing.
A microphone has two states; OPEN and CLOSED. An open Mic (pronounced “Mike”) is active and collecting sound. A closed Mic is dormant and no longer adding its signal to the program.
The Program is the signal that is being transmitted to the audience. In many cases this is actually being recorded on Videotape but still treated as a live broadcast. The Preview is a display of what will be on the Program after the next transition.
There are many different ways to move the viewer from one shot to another. These are called the Transitions. The most common is the Cut. There are many types of Dissolves, Fades and Wipes.
NLE – Nonlinear Editor – Digital Video editing, done on the computer.
A Roll – your main footage
B Roll – footage that is used to emphasize what is happening on the A roll
Voice Over (VO) – when someone is talking but does not appear on camera.